Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Mehta, Sudha

Degree Name

M.S. (Master of Science)

Legacy Department

School of Family, Consumer and Nutrition Sciences


Diabetes--Treatment; Diabetes--Diet therapy; Diabetes--Nutritional aspects; Diabetics--Rehabilitation


This study compared diabetes treatment satisfaction, self-reported blood glucose levels, and self-reported hemoglobin A-|C levels of individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes using carbohydrate counting to those using the exchange system of dietary management. A diabetes treatment satisfaction score was obtained by adding the responses of the subjects to an eight-item Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) developed and validated by Bradley and Lewis. Surveys were sent to 432 adult subjects recruited from 14 outpatient clinical sites and diabetes support group meetings in Northern Illinois, a bulletin placed on the internet, and a message printed in the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Northern Illinois Affiliate membership newsletter. Completed questionnaires were returned by 73 mostly white Caucasians (92%) with a mean age of 43y for the individuals with type 1 diabetes (n=50) and a mean age of 50y for 23 respondents with type 2 diabetes. Of subjects with type 1 diabetes (66%), the majority (68%) used the carbohydrate counting system of dietary management. Of the possible total score of 48, the mean DTSQ score of carbohydrate counters (37.2+/- 0.9) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of the exchange system followers (30.0+/-1.8) irrespective of the type of diabetes. Indicators of diabetes control were also superior for the carbohydrate counters with their mean glycosylated hemoglobin (6.7+/-0.1) being significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of the exchange system users (7.6+/-0.3). Pearson correlation coefficients showed a significant positive correlation between DTSQ scores and dietary management system (r = 0.44, p = 0.001), age (r= 0.37, p = 0.002), and other complications associated with diabetes (r= 0.28, p = 0.02). Self-reported preprandial blood glucose levels (r = -0.29, p = 0.014), and Hemoglobin A-iC levels (r = -0.40, p=0.001) were negatively correlated with the DTSQ scores. Multiple-regression analysis also demonstrated that the dietary management system (B=0.38, P<.008) and preprandial blood glucose levels (B= -0.40, P<0.01) contributed most to the DTSQ scores. The findings of the current study indicated that individuals who use carbohydrate counting have better diabetes treatment satisfaction and better glycemic control than those who use the exchange system of diet management do. These results suggest that carbohydrate counting may be easier to learn and adhere to, leading to better glycemic control and treatment satisfaction.


Includes bibliographical references (pages [40]-43).


iv, 65 pages




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