Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Plowman, Sharon A.

Degree Name

M.S. (Master of Science)

Legacy Department

Department of Physical Education


Exercise therapy; Exercise--Physiological aspects


This study compared the physiologic responses to forward and retrograde simulated stair stepping on the StairMaster 4000 PT. Twenty male subjects (mean age 23.65±1.63 yr) volunteered for this study. Subjects completed a practice trial of six minutes of both forward and retrograde stepping at Level 5. Each experimental trial was divided into four three-minute stages: Level 3, Level 5, Level 7, and Level 9. Heart rate, blood pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the second minute of each stage. Inspired gasses were analyzed and averaged over the last two minutes of each stage. Caloric expenditure and delta efficiency were later calculated. Data were analyzed using a 2 x 4 (direction by level) ( 2 x 3 for delta efficiency) ANOVA. Retrograde heart rates were significantly higher at Levels 7 and 9 (p<0.01). Retrograde responses for RPE, METS and caloric expenditure were higher at Levels 5, 7, and 9. However, the results of this study show that these differences between forward and retrograde stepping are not practically significant.


Includes bibliographical references (pages [18]-20)


42 pages




Northern Illinois University

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