Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Tymeson, Garth

Degree Name

M.S. Ed. (Master of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Physical Education


Mentally handicapped teenagers--Physical training; Motor ability; Sprinting


Eleven males (M age 15.5 years ± 1.5) and 11 females (M age 15.7 years ± 1.6) with moderate mental retardation (MMR) were instructed by either the forward chaining (FC) or the backward chaining (BC) instructional method. A modification of the sprint start was used as the gross motor task. All subjects were pretested. Testing procedures included subjects viewing three videotaped trials of the investigator performing the modified sprint start in perfect score form. Subjects participated in a 4-week sprint start instructional unit (two 30-min sessions per week). A posttest was given immediately after the 4-week instructional unit and a retention test was administered 7 days after the posttest. The sum of the sprint start scores of four raters for each subject was recorded on the performance checklist and analyzed by a 2 x 3 (group x time) repeated measures ANOVA. (The maximum score was 32 points, 8 points from each of the four raters.) The group effect, F(1,20) = 2.8, p>.05, and interaction effect were not significant, F(1,20) = .90, p>.05. However, the time effect was significant, F(1,20) = 16, p<.05, Geisser-Greenhouse Conservative F-Test. Both groups increased from pretest to posttest (FC, 7.2 ± 3.3 and 14.5 ± 8.0; BC, 10.2 ± 6.9 and 18.4 ± 10.3, respectively). There was no difference between posttest and retention test means (16.4 and 17.4, respectively). These results indicate that either FC or BC have the same effect on performance of the sprint start for subjects with MMR.


Includes bibliographical references (pages 30-32)


iv, 52 pages




Northern Illinois University

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