Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Lukaszuk, Judith M.

Degree Name

M.S. (Master of Science)

Legacy Department

School of Family, Consumer and Nutrition Sciences


Nutrition; Proton pump inhibitors--Research; Gastric acid--Secretion--Research; Stomach--Secretions--Research; Vitamin B12--Nutritional aspects--Research


Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) affect gastric acid secretion. The use of PPIs in the elderly population (>70 years old) may increase the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency because gastric acid is needed for vitamin B12 digestion and absorption. However, it's unclear whether adults ages 50--70 years old that use PPIs chronically are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. Objective: To determine whether chronic use of PPIs results in increased urinary methylmalonic acid (uMMA) levels in adults ages 50--70 years old, indicating vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods: Fifteen men and women who had been taking PPIs daily for a minimum of one year were recruited. Fifteen subjects, not taking PPIs, were age-matched (+/- 3 years) and gender-matched to the subjects taking PPIs. Tissue stores of vitamin B12 were determined using uMMA. Results: There were no significant differences in uMMA levels between those taking PPIs (Mdn = 1.60 microg uMMA/mg creatinine), and those not taking PPIs (Mdn = 1.80 microg uMMA/mg creatinine) (p = 0.12). Conclusion: Chronic use of PPIs did not alter vitamin B 12 status of subjects in healthy adults ages 50-70 years old. Regular monitoring of vitamin B12 status does not appear to be needed in this age group, however, studies using larger groups are indicated to confirm these findings.


Advisors: Judith Lukaszuk.||Committee members: Masih Shokrani; Josephine Umoren.


105 pages




Northern Illinois University

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