Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Tymeson, Garth

Degree Name

M.S. Ed. (Master of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Physical Education


Physical education for handicapped children--Psychological aspects; Parents--Psychology; Physical education teachers--Psychology


This study compared long-term adapted physical education (APE) goals as perceived by 77 parents of children with disabilities and 123 APE specialists from Minnesota. The Goals of Adapted Physical Education Scale (GAPES) and specific demographic items were administered. The GAPES, a paired comparison ranking, included nine long-term APE goals. Test-retest reliability was determined by administering GAPES to a different sample of 52 APE teachers. Intraclass reliability coefficients ranging from .46 to .79 were found using a subjects by treatment ANOVA. Results indicated that GAPES has moderate reliability. A MANOVA was used to compare goal means of parents and APE specialists. A Hotellings T Square Multivariate Test of Significance (posthoc) yielded an F (1, 198) = 9.91 indicating a significant difference (.01 level) between the goal priorities of parents and specialists. This significant difference in the means between parents and specialists occurred on the leisure time skills, play and game skills, and creative expression goals. APE specialists prioritized leisure time skills (M = 4.64) second in importance and play and game skills (M = 3.48) seventh, while parents ranked leisure time skills (M = 2.84) eighth and play and game skills (M = 2.78) ninth. However, parents prioritized creative expression (M = 3.03) seventh as compared to specialists (M = 1.54) who ranked it ninth. Overall, positive self- concept was ranked as the most important goal by both groups. Further analysis of the data using MANOVA'S revealed no significant differences in the means of goals by parents based on their child's age level and handicapping condition. The results should be interpreted with caution due to the reliability of GAPES; the difficulty experienced by parents in completing GAPES; and small samples of students when categorized by age level and handicapping condition.


Includes bibliographical references (pages 41-42)


vi, 52 pages




Northern Illinois University

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