Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Wasonga, Teresa A. (Teresa Akinyi), 1961-

Degree Name

Ed.D. (Doctor of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology and Foundations


Educational leadership


This quantitative study investigated elementary school principals' self-efficacy beliefs, goal expectations of student achievement and their impact on student achievement. To achieve this objective 205 elementary principals completed an electronic survey. The survey consisted of two parts, the Principal Self-Efficacy Survey (Tchannen-Moran & Garies, 2004), and a demographic questionnaire. A modified version of Bandura's social cognitive theory (1977) was the lens used to conceptualize this study. In this framework self-efficacy beliefs and goal expectations were considered to act independently of one another (Pajares, 1996) in reference to actual outcomes. Completed data sets were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t --tests, ANOVA analyses, correlations and regression. An examination of the principals' composite self-efficacy score alongside the separate subscales of principal self-efficacy (Instructional Leadership, Moral Leadership, and Management) reveals principals use more of the moral dimension of efficacy in their work. Both males and females perceive higher moral leadership than other subscales or composite. With more experience principals demonstrate higher levels of self-efficacy. Additional educational attainment also coincides with greater efficacy. Urban principals showed higher levels of self-efficacy, while unit school districts principals demonstrated higher levels efficacy than elementary school district principals. This study also revealed principals in schools with the lowest free and reduced lunch student population showed the highest averages of self-efficacy. ANOVA analyses and t -- test revealed a significant difference for gender, school type, level of education, school location, and principal expected PARCC 2016 composite scores and actual PARCC 2016 composite scores. Correlation analysis revealed significant relationships among the self-efficacy composite score, all subscale scores, and actual PARCC 2016 composite scores. Stronger correlations exist between principal expected outcomes of student achievement and actual student achievement than principal self-efficacy expectations and student achievement. Regression analysis revealed principal self-efficacy and expected outcomes contributed to 11% of the variance in actual PARCC 2016 composite scores, but the significant variable was the expected PARCC 2016 composite. These findings suggest principal self-efficacy and expected outcomes act independently of one another, and a principal's sense of moral Leadership influences their leadership more so than their sense of instructional leadership or management. More research in the area of expected outcomes and the influence of moral leadership is recommended as a result of this study.


Advisors: Teresa Wasonga.||Committee members: Brad Hawk; Kelly Summers.||Includes bibliographical references.||Includes illustrations.


ix, 124 pages




Northern Illinois University

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