Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Roesch, Winston L. (Winston Leigh), 1911-1992

Degree Name

M.S. (Master of Science)

Legacy Department

Department of Education


Programmed instruction; Chemistry--Programmed instruction


The purpose of this study was to identify means of utilizing programed instruction as an adjunct to the regular classroom chemistry instruction, and to indicate peculiarities in the teaching method required for the effective presentation of the programed instruction. In gathering data, the following methods and procedures were utilized. Two sections of Chemistry I (the experimental group and the control group) were established and arranged through a method which paired each masher of the experimental group with a member of the control group. The main pairing criteria were a measure of academic aptitude and scientific aptitude test score. The groups were administered three standardized chemistry tests. The first of these was administered at the beginning of the school year, the second at the termination of that same school year, and the third at the beginning of the school the following year. In addition to these standardized tests, a pre- and a post-test was administered for each of the six programs used, and an attitude opinionnaire was utilized three time during the school year at an interval of three months. All of the accumulated data was analyzed by means of variance. The mean and the standard deviation were evaluated for the group performance and the individual performance on the test material. The t score for the group performance was calculated, the variance between the two groups was compared and the total data was examined for general conclusions. The findings of this study indicate that: (l) The programs were found to be, generally, inadequate, although their organization and presentation of material was superior to the average textbook, (2) Programs cannot be used very often as a complete classroom experience. (3) The programs did not teach more effectively than the conventional method of instruction. (4) Programs did not require active participation of the teacher, and this absence of participation was missed by the students. (5) The programs presented the problem of keeping the students and the teacher, alert, active, and challenged. (6) Programed materials used by themselves are not likely to satisfy either teachers or students. (7) the programed material had a tendency to hold back the creative students. (8) Programed material does not provide a panacea for the traditional practice of study which permits the learning of a certain topic only when everyone else is studying it, but it does help. (9) The use of programs as adjunctive aids--like lab manuals and films--appears to offer the greatest hope of success. The overall finding drawn from this study was: In the present state of development, the programed instruction is no more useful than any other good adjunctive aid. The programs teach mechanical processes well, they are good for review, make-up, homework or special credit. But until the programing principles can be established that instruct more and better than they do now, they may not rise above the level of utility of a good lab manual or an excellent movie.


Includes bibliographical references (pages [49]-51)


vii, 61 pages




Northern Illinois University

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