Hammerman, Donald R.||Cockrell, Lloyd
M.S. (Master of Science)
Department of Outdoor Teacher Education
Arthmetic--Study and teaching (Elementary); Outdoor education
Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of this study to measure objectively what effects outdoor teaching methods would have on the achievement of sixth-graders in arithmetic. More specifically, the study demonstrated (1) the effects of outdoor teaching methods in relation to achievement in arithmetic reasoning skills, and (2) the effects of outdoor teaching methods in relation to achievement in arithmetic computation skills. Method of research. The design of the study was experimental in nature. Two sixth grades, one the control group and the other the experimental group, from Grove Junior High School, Elk Grove Tillage, Illinois, participated in the experiment. The California Achievement Test of Arithmetic (form W) served ae the pretest for both groups. Form X of the same test was used to measure gains made by the two groups at the end of the study. The groups were matched as closely as circumstances allowed in the areas of (1) age (2) I.Q. (3) sex (b) Arithmetic achievement. The control group, during the experiment, was taught using indoor classroom procedures. The program of study of the experimental group was supplemented with outdoor experiences. At the end of four weeks the experiment was terminated and both groups were subjected to a posttest. Results. Statistical analysis of the gains from pretest to posttest revealed that each group achieved significant gains in reasoning and computation. The difference in mean gains (mean gain experimental minus wean gain control) was significant only In computation. However, when the total mean gain difference (reasoning scores plus computation scores) was analyzed, the experimental group established a gain which was statistically significant at the 1% level. Conclusions. (1) The use of outdoor teaching methods doss not significantly affect arithmetic reasoning skills. (2) The use of outdoor teaching methods does significantly affect arithmetic computation skills. (3) The use of outdoor teaching methods does significantly affect total arithmetic achievement.
Hoeksema, Harold L., "An experiment dealing with the effects of outdoor education on the achievement of sixth-graders in arithmetic" (1964). Graduate Research Theses & Dissertations. 1278.
ix, 65 pages, 20 unnumbered pages
Northern Illinois University
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