Sharon Sytsma

Document Type



Intersexual infants and infants with other genital abnormalities often receive genital surgery for sex assignment or for normalizing purposes. The wisdom and beneficence of these practices have been questioned by intersexual individuals, support groups, some doctors, and the media. Because the practices have been developed without long-term studies to evaluate them, pediatric urologists and parents of such children must face decisions with very little guidance from empirical support. In the face of ignorance about what is really the best medical response to intersexuality or genital abnormalities, some have argued for a moratorium on infant genital surgery until empirical studies are available. The urgent need for retrospective studies is now being recognized in medical journals. Because genital surgery may be appropriate and beneficent in some of these conditions, or in some degrees of these conditions, but not in others, retrospective studies must be devised to examine the degree of success of surgery for each of these conditions, or levels thereof.



Publication Date


Original Citation

Sytsma, Sharon. "Ethical Dilemmas in Retrospective Studies on Genital Surgery in the Treatment of Intersexual Infants," Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Vol. 13:4, pg. 394-403.

Legacy Department

Department of Philosophy




Cambridge University Press



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