Document Type



Adult learners of Chinese learned new characters through writing, visual chunking or reading-only. Following training, ERPs were recorded during character recognition tasks, first shortly after the training and then three months later. We hypothesized that the character training effects would be seen in ERP components associated with word recognition and episodic memory. Results confirmed a larger N170 for visual chunking training than other training and a larger P600 for learned characters than novel characters. Another result was a training effect on the amplitude of the P100, which was greater following writing training than other training, suggesting that writing training temporarily lead to increased visual attention to the orthographic forms. Furthermore, P100 amplitude at the first post-test was positively correlated with character recall 3 months later. Thus the marker of early visual attention (P100) was predictive of retention of orthographic knowledge acquired in training.



Publication Date


Original Citation

Cao, F., Rickles, B., Vu, M., Zhu, Z., Chan, D. H.-L., Harris, L. N., Stafura, J., Xu, Y., & Perfetti, C. A. (2013). Early stage visual-orthographic processes predict long-term retention of word form and meaning: A visual encoding training study. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 26(4), 440-461.


Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology, and Foundations (LEPF)

Legacy Department

Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology and Foundations



Rights Statement

In Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Permitted

Rights Statement 2

CC BY-NC-ND 2013



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