Document Type



Although digital navigation systems are becoming ubiquitous, they generally only select routes based on relatively simple criteria (length and time) and fail to adequately consider the preferred strategy of the user. In order to account for these strategies, care must be taken to solicit not only simple preferences, but also deeper issues such as overall strategic disposition and attitudes toward risk. Hallmarks of true strategy include schematic, general, conditional and conscious consideration of the impact of important variables on the achievement of one’s goals. Factor analysis of a forty-item questionnaire isolated five questions that well-account for the strategic disposition of individuals. Additionally, attitudes about risk were explored in pedestrian and driving contexts. This analysis suggests that within the individual, attitudes about risk are relatively fixed, yet the manifestation of risk-seeking behavior is dependent on the mode of travel.



Publication Date



Characterizing the Role of Strategic Disposition and Orientation to Risk in Wayfinding; American Marketing Association has copyright and the authors can use it for teaching and research. Attached are page 1 and 2.

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in the INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY on November 29, 2021, available online:

This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date. Based on the talk given at the Biannual IQSA Meeting in Cesena, Italy, March 31 - April 5, 2001. Submitted to the volume collecting the proceedings of the conference. This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in the British Journal of the Philosophy of Science following peer review. The version of record: Valia Allori, Sheldon Goldstein, Roderich Tumulka, and Nino Zanghì. On the Common Structure of Bohmian Mechanics and the Ghirardi–Rimini–Weber Theory: Dedicated to GianCarlo Ghirardi on the occasion of his 70th birthday." Br J Philos Sci (2008) 59 (3): 353-389 first published online July 11, 2008 doi:10.1093/bjps/axn012 is available online at:

Original Citation

Thomas J. Pingel "Characterizing the Role of Strategic Disposition and Orientation to Risk in Wayfinding" Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 15 (4) July 2012, 427-437


Department of Geographic and Atmospheric Sciences

Legacy Department

Department of Geography









To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.