Document Type



The goal of the current study was to investigate gender differences in the relationship between multiple sources of perceived support (parents, teachers, classmates, close friends, and school) and indices of psychological and academic adjustment. As a preliminary analysis, the study provided further psychometric support for the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS: Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2003). The results of the main analyses supported previous findings related to gender differences in mean levels of perceived support and extended findings demonstrating the importance of support from parents and the general peer group for both boys and girls. Overall, these results illustrate the importance of examining gender differences in the social experience of early adolescents as well as the differential impact of various sources of support in their lives, and highlight the importance of carefully considering measurement and analytic issues when investigating multiple sources of support.

Publication Date


Original Citation

Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2010). Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Comparisons across gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 47-61.

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology





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