Document Type

Article

Media Type

Text

Abstract

By embedding ‘‘dilute’’ gold nanoparticles in single polystyrene thin films as ‘‘markers’’, we probe the local viscosity of the free surface at temperatures far above the glass transition temperature (Tg). The technique used was x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy with resonance-enhanced x-ray scattering. The results clearly showed the surface viscosity is about 30% lower than the rest of the film. We found that this reduction is strongly associated with chain entanglements at the free surface rather than the reduction in Tg.

DOI

10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.066101

Publication Date

1-1-2010

Department

Department of Physics

Sponsorship

T. K. acknowledges financial support from NSF Grant No. CMMI-0846267 and ChemMatCARS, APS. The use of the APS was supported by the DOE, Office of Basic Energy Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02- 06CH11357.

ISSN

0031-9007

Language

eng

Publisher

American Physical Society

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